The Past Perfect

Past Perfect

 FORM: had + past participle

The past perfect is used to describe an activity that was completed before another activity or time in the past.

The main verb in past perfect is called a past participle. It is often made by adding -ed; however, there are many irregular verbs which use the past participle form.

  • My mother had cooked dinner before I got home.
  • My brother had gone to bed by the time I came home.
  • Yesterday, the teacher was angry because I had forgotten to bring my homework to class


{ I – You – We – He – She – It } had studied before I took the exam.


{ I – You – We – She – He – It } had not (hadn’t) studied before I took the exam.


Had { I – you – we – she – he -it } studied before you took the exam?

Short Answer

Yes, { I – you – we – she – he – it } had.  No, { I – you – we – she – he – it } hadn’t.